Morbidity and mortality among neonates with esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula in the United States.

TitleMorbidity and mortality among neonates with esophageal atresia and/or tracheoesophageal fistula in the United States.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsDonovan MR, Skirko J, Lee J, Scheffler P
JournalInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol
Date Published2023 Sep
KeywordsBirth Weight, Esophageal Atresia, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Morbidity, Retrospective Studies, Tracheoesophageal Fistula, United States

BACKGROUND: Although rare, esophageal atresia (EA) and/or tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) can lead to severe morbidity and mortality. A known complication of EA and/or TEF repair is vocal fold motion impairment (VFMI).

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence of VFMI among repaired EA and/or TEF at a national level and to identify factors associated with in-patient mortality and common clinical endpoints in this population (tracheostomy and gastrostomy tube dependence).

METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of inpatient neonate admissions with EA and/or TEF in the 2016 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Patients with a history of EA and/or TEF were identified with ICD-10 codes. VFMI prevalence was assessed by observed frequencies and percentages. Clinical endpoints included gastrostomy (G-)tube placement, tracheostomy status, and inpatient mortality. Potential predictors of these three primary outcomes included cardiac anomalies, airway disorders, chromosomal anomalies, surgery within 24 h of admission, prematurity, and low birthweight (LBW). Chi-squared analysis was performed between each parameter and the primary outcomes. Significant associations (p-value<0.05) were further assessed with multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS: Of 1062 neonates with history of EA and/or TEF, 24 (2.3%) had VFMI. Among this population, 27 patients underwent tracheostomies and 63 required G-tubes. There was a significantly higher likelihood of tracheostomy in patients with VFMI compared to patients without (16.7% versus 2.2%; p < 0.01). After multivariate analysis, birthweight less than 1.5 kg (BW < 1.5 kg; OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.03-6.10), extreme prematurity (OR = 7.5, 95% CI: 2.00-28.07), cardiac anomalies (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.01-3.04) and chromosomal anomalies (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.39-7.44) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.73-12.78) and BW < 1.5 kg (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.05-5.49) were significant predictors for G-tube status. For tracheostomy, BPD (OR = 15.8, 95% CI: 4.70-52.83) and subglottic stenosis (SS, OR = 11.2, 95% CI: 1.85-68.02) remained significant predictors after multivariate regression.

CONCLUSION: The national prevalence of VFMI among neonates following EA and/or TEF repair was 2.3% and was associated with an increased likelihood of tracheostomy in the KID 2016. Significant predictors of in-hospital mortality were cardiac anomalies, chromosomal anomalies, extreme prematurity, and BW < 1.5 kg. BPD and SS were significant predictors of tracheostomy, and BPD and BW < 1.5 kg were significant predictors for G-tube requirements.

Alternate JournalInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol
PubMed ID37557023
Faculty Reference: 
Jonathan Skirko, MD, MHPA, MPH