|Title||Virtual Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulation with 3D-Printed Models for Mixed-Reality Nasal Endoscopy.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Barber SR, Jain S, Son Y-J, Chang EH|
|Journal||Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg|
|Date Published||2018 11|
|Keywords||Endoscopy, Humans, Models, Educational, Nose, Paranasal Sinuses, Printing, Three-Dimensional, Sensitivity and Specificity, Simulation Training, Virtual Reality|
The surgeon's knowledge of a patient's individual anatomy is critical in skull base surgery. Trainees and experienced surgeons can benefit from surgical simulation; however, current models are expensive and impractical for widespread use. In this study, we report a next-generation mixed-reality surgical simulator. We segmented critical anatomic structures for 3-dimensional (3D) models to develop a modular teaching tool. We then developed a navigation tracking system utilizing a 3D-printed endoscope as a trackable virtual-reality (VR) controller and validated the accuracy on VR and 3D-printed skull models within 1 cm. We combined VR and augmented-reality visual cues with our 3D physical model to simulate sinus endoscopy and highlight segmented structures in real time. This report provides evidence that a mixed-reality simulator combining VR and 3D-printed models is feasible and may prove useful as an educational tool that is low cost and customizable.
|Alternate Journal||Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg|
Virtual Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulation with 3D-Printed Models for Mixed-Reality Nasal Endoscopy.
Eugene H. Chang, MD